Government and politics

Government and Politics

On January 13, 1992, the Parliament adopted a new constitution. The Constitution also restructured the legislative branch of the  government by creating  a unicameral  parliamentary legislature. The Constitution was put into  force  on  February  12, 1992 and amended in 1999 and 2001.

Legislative branch

Flag_of_Mongolia.svgThe Parliament  of Mongolia  is referred  to as the State Great Khural,  which is the highest  organ of state power. The Parliament  consists of 76 members appointed for a term of four years. The last parliamentary election was held on June 28, 2012 and the next  parliamentary  election is expected to be held in June 2016.

The Parliament confirms the appointment of the Prime Minister and Cabinet ministers. The Parliament has the power to draft  legislation, enact and amend  laws, approve the annual budget,  approve foreign and domestic policies, declare states of emergency and war and ratify  international   treaties and agreements.

President  of Mongolia

240px-1000px-Soyombo_yellow.svgThe President is the head of state, commander-in-chief of the armed forces and head of the  National Security Council. The President  is second in authority to the 76-member Parliament. Presidential candidates are nominated by political parties that have at least one seat in the Parliament.  Presidents  are elected by absolute majority vote to serve a four-year term and are  limited to serving two terms. The President is empowered  by the Constitution  to submit a proposal  for the nomination of the Prime Minister, which is then subject to approval by the Parliament,  call for dissolution of the Cabinet, initiate  legislation and veto all or parts of legislation  passed by the Parliament. The President may also confirm appointments of judges, appoint ambassadors, grant pardons and enter into international treaties.

Executive   branch

suldThe Prime Minister is the head of the executive branch. The Prime Minister and the Deputy Prime Ministers are nominated by the ruling party and confirmed by the President. They are limited to serving a four-year  term. The Prime Minister chooses the members of the Cabinet, subject to the  Parliament’s approval. The Cabinet appoints and removes deputy ministers on the basis of the proposal of the Prime Minister and the relevant Minister.

The Cabinet is the highest executive body of Mongolia. The Cabinet is in place for a four-year term or a shorter term when it is dissolved upon either resignation of the Prime Minister, simultaneous resignation of half of the Cabinet or parliamentary vote for dissolution. The Cabinet and its ministries  are accountable to the Parliament.

The main function of the Cabinet is to implement the laws of Mongolia, in accordance with its duties  to direct economic, social and cultural development of Mongolia. The Cabinet is currently coinposed  of 16 ministries, which carry out the Cabinet’s various programs and projects and formulate policies  in their relevant areas.

The current Government

During Mongolia’s seventh parliamentary elections held on June 28, 2012, the Democratic Party  won 31 parliamentary seats, the MPP won 25 pailiamentary seats and the other parties shared 16 parliamentary seats in the Parliament. The Democratic  Party having won the most number of seats in the Parliament was entitled to form the current government. They formed a coalition government  with the Justice Coalition, which consists of the New MPRP and the MNDP, and the Civil Will-Green  Party, as the two minority parties. The new coalition government has been named the Reform  Government.

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